Kajiki Templating Basics

Kajiki provides two templating engines, one which is useful for generating markup (HTML or XML most likely), and one of which is useful for generating plain text. This document describes the aspects of the two engines that are similar and the basic API for using them.

Synopsis

A Kajiki xml template is a well-formed XML document that may include one or more custom tags and attributes prefixed by the namespace ‘py:’. XML templates also may contain python expressions that will be evaluated at template expansion time as well as processing instructions that may contain Python code. XML templates should be used when generating XML or HTML, as they provide awareness of well-formedness rules and proper escaping.

The following is an example of a simple Kajki markup template:

<?python
  title = "A Kajiki Template"
  fruits = ["apple", "orange", "kiwi"]
?>
<html>
  <head>
    <title py:content="title">This is replaced.</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <p>These are some of my favorite fruits:</p>
    <ul>
      <li py:for="fruit in fruits">
        I like ${fruit}s
      </li>
    </ul>
  </body>
</html>

This template would generate output similar to this (in X(H)ML mode):

<html>
  <head>
    <title>A Kajiki Template</title>
  </head>
  <body>
    <p>These are some of my favorite fruits:</p>
    <ul>
      <li>I like apples</li>
      <li>I like oranges</li>
      <li>I like kiwis</li>
    </ul>
  </body>
</html>

or this (in HTML mode):

<html>
  <head>
    <title>A Kajiki Template</title>
  <body>
    <p>These are some of my favorite fruits:
    <ul>
      <li>I like apples
      <li>I like oranges
      <li>I like kiwis
    </ul>
Text templates, on the other hand, are plain text documents that can contain
embedded Python directives and expressions. Text templates should be used when generating non-markup text format such as email. Here is a simple text template:
Dear $name,
These are some of my favorite fruits:
%for fruit in fruts
  * $fruit
%end

This would generate something similar to the following:

Dear Rick,
These are some of my favorite fruits:
  * Apples
  * Bananas
  * Pears

Python API

In order to actually use Kajiki in generating text (either via the XML or the text-based languages), the pattern is as follows:

  1. Obtain an XMLTemplate or TextTemplate subclass containing the template source. This can either be done directly or via a template loader.
  2. Instantiate the template with one constructor argument, a dict containing all the values that should be made available as global variables to the template.
  3. Render the template instance using its render() method (for rendering to a single string) or iterating through it (for “stream”) rendering.

For instance:

>>> Template = kajiki.XMLTemplate('<h1>Hello, $name!</h1>')
>>> t = Template(dict(name='world'))
>>> t.render()
'<h1>Hello, world!</h1>'

Using text templates is similar:

>>> Template = kajiki.TextTemplate('Hello, $name!')
>>> t = Template(dict(name='world'))
>>> t.render()
'Hello, world!'

You can also use a template loader to indirectly generate the template classes. Using a template loader gives two main advantages over directly instantiating templates:

  • Compiled templates are cached and only re-parsed when the template changes.
  • Several template tags such as extends, import, and include that require knowlege of other templates become enabled.

Using a template loader would look similar to the following:

loader = PackageLoader()
Template = loader.import_('my.package.text.template')
t = Template(dict(title='Hello, world!')
print t.render()

Template Expressions and Code Blocks

Python expressions can be used in “plain text” areas of templates, including, in XML templates, tag attributes. They are also used in some directive arguments. Whenever a Python expression is used in a “plain text” area, it must be prefixed by a dollar sign ($) and possibly enclosed in curly braces. If the expression starts with a letter and contains only letters, digits, dots, and underscores, then the curly braces may be omitted. In all other cases, they are required. For example:

>>> Template = kajiki.XMLTemplate('<em>${items[0].capitalize()}</em>')
>>> Template(dict(items=['first', 'second'])).render()
'<em>First</em>'
>>> import sys
>>> Template = kajiki.TextTemplate('Maxint is $sys.maxsize')
>>> Template(dict(sys=sys)).render()
'Maxint is 9223372036854775807'

Escaping

If you need a literal dollar sign where Kajiki would normally detect an expression, you can simply double the dollar sign:

>>> Template = kajiki.XMLTemplate('<em>$foo</em>')
>>> Template().render()
Traceback (most recent call last):
   ...
NameError: global name 'foo' is not defined
>>> Template = kajiki.XMLTemplate('<em>$$foo</em>')
>>> Template().render()
'<em>$foo</em>'

Code Blocks

Templates also support full Python syntax, using the <?py ?> processing instruction:

<div>
    <?py import sys>
    Maxint is $sys.maxint
</div>

This will produce the following output:

<div>
    Maxint is 9223372036854775807
</div>

In text blocks, the %py (or {%py%} directive accomplishes the same goal:

%py import sys
Maxint is $sys.maxint

This will produce:

Maxint is 9223372036854775807

In both of the above cases, the Python code runs in the ‘local scope’ of the template’s main rendering function, so any variables defined there will not be accessible in functions or blocks defined elsewhere in the template. To force the python block to run at ‘module-level’ in XML templates, simply prefix the first line of the Python with a percent (%) sign:

>>> Template = kajiki.XMLTemplate('''<div
... ><?py %import os
... ?><py:def function="test()"
... >${os.path.join('a', 'b', 'c')}</py:def
... >${test()}</div>''')
>>> Template().render()
'<div>a/b/c</div>'

In text templates, replace the %py directive with %py%:

>>> Template = kajiki.TextTemplate('''%py% import os
... %def test()
... ${os.path.join('a','b','c')}\\
... %end
... ${test()}''')
>>> Template().render()
'a/b/c'

Built-in Functions and Variables

All templates have access to the following functions and variables:

literal(x)

Wrap some user-generated text so that it doesn’t get escaped along with everything else.

local

The current template being defined

self

The current template being defined, or, if used in the context of a parent template that is being extended, the final (“child-most”) template in the inheritance hierarchy.

parent

The parent template (via py:extends) of the template being defined

child

The child template (via py:extends) of the template being defined

Template Directives

Template directives provide control flow and inheritance functionality for templates. As their syntax depends on whether you’re using XML or text templates, please refer to Kajiki XML Templates or Kajiki Text Templates for more information.